A set of mathematical operations defined on a group of points on a 2D elliptical curve. Bitcoin protocol uses a predefined curve secp256k1.
Malone, J.A (2015). Glossary of Bitcoin Terms and Definitions. United States: Lulu Press, Inc
Refers to an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. See elliptic curve cryptography.